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IGCSE Science**

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Definitions of some useful
scientific words**

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Students will not be ask to
recall or quote these definitions in any IGCSE examination.*

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Accuracy: **
An accurate measurement is
one which is close to the true or accepted value. An ‘accepted value’ comes from
the work of many scientists who have measured the value, agreed with it and
published the value. These values can be checked via text books, data tables or
through the internet (remembering that some internet sources – especially those
with open editing or owned by interest groups - may not always prove to be
reliable).

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Anomalous data: **
Anomalous readings are
those which fall outside the normal, or expected, range of measurements. If we
take a large number of readings, we can be more certain about saying which
readings are anomalous (i.e. do not fit the pattern established by the others)
and which are not. Anomalous readings are easy to see on a graph as a point, or
points, which do not lie on or near the best-fit line.

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Average: **
The arithmetical mean of a
set of data is usually referred to as the average. This mean value gives you an
estimate of the ‘true’ value, assuming that no reading is anomalous. For
example, if you measure the length of a piece of wire four times and obtain
values of 6.2 cm, 6.1 cm, 6.3 cm and 6.2 cm, the average (mean) value for the
length is 6.2 cm. It is only an estimate because your measuring instruments may
be giving you false readings in some way, or other variables may have affected
what you were trying to measure.

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Concordant readings:**
If readings have been taken several times and the readings are identical, or
close to each other, then they are described as concordant. In the example
above, the four readings for the length of the wire are concordant. However, if
the readings were 6.2 cm, 7.1 cm, 6.3 cm and 6.1 cm then the readings would not
be concordant. The reading of 7.1 cm is likely to be anomalous and should be
checked again. Any average taken from the readings should only include the
concordant readings and not anomalous ones. Usually, readings which are
concordant are likely to be reliable. Concordant readings are frequently
encountered in titrations in chemistry, where titre values are said to be
concordant if they are within 0.20 cm^{3} of each other.

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Control variable**:
A control variable is one that will affect the outcome of the investigation.
Control variables must be kept constant otherwise the investigation will not be
a fair test e.g. if you were investigating the effect of light on the rate of
photosynthesis of a plant, you must keep the temperature around the plant
constant as any change in temperature would affect the results. If you did not
keep the temperature constant it would not be a fair test.

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Correlation**:
Correlation is a relationship between the two variables in a given experiment.
This is often obtained from a graph. If the gradient (slope) of a graph is
positive (i.e. the graph slopes upwards) we can say there is a positive
correlation. If the gradient is negative, we can say there is a negative
correlation between the variables. If a straight line goes through the origin of
a graph and the gradient is positive, we can say that the variables are directly
proportional to each other. Just because two factors correlate well and there is
a good line of best fit line, it does not necessarily mean that one thing is
causing the other to increase or decrease.

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Data**:
Is a term normally used for the set of numerical values recorded in an
experiment. We usually record data in tables to make comparisons easy.

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Dependent variable**:
The dependent variable is the quantity that changes as a result of changes made
to another variable (the independent one) e.g. if we chose to vary the height of
a ramp and measure the speed of a trolley as it runs down the ramp, the height
of the ramp is the independent variable and the speed of the trolley is the
dependent variable.

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Fair test**:
A fair test is a series of experiments or measurements in which only the values
of one independent variable and the dependent variable change. A fair test can
usually be achieved by keeping all other variables constant, or controlled.

**
Independent variable**:
The independent variable is the one which is varied to see its effect on the
dependent variable e.g. we might have several different values for the height of
a ramp when we determine the speed of a trolley which rolls down it.

**
Precision**:
Precision is usually determined by the apparatus being used, although it can be
influenced by technique. Most scientific instruments have scales – if the
sub-divisions on these scales are smaller, then it is usually possible to take
more precise readings. For example, it will be more precise, when measuring a
small temperature rise, to use a thermometer measuring to the nearest 0.1°C than
one measuring only to the nearest 1.0 °C. Note, however, that this is not always
the case. Most digital stopwatches will measure to the nearest 0.01 s. This
degree of “precision” is unwarranted – our own reaction times prevent readings
taken to this level of precision from being valid. If
suitable apparatus is used, and the technique of the experimenter is good, then
the apparatus should produce very similar data (precise data) when the
experiment is repeated.

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Reliability**:
The results of an investigation may be considered reliable if readings are
repeated, and concordant data is obtained. The more concordant your results are,
the more reliable they are likely to be.

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Validity**:
Data collected may be considered valid if you can say “yes” to the question, “Am
I really measuring what I am trying to measure?” Validity refers to the
technique and apparatus used for collecting the data. In a valid experiment all
variables are kept constant apart from those being investigated. Normally only
one variable is investigated at a time. Validity can be improved by reducing any
uncertainties (or errors). Note that validity is not really about “human errors”
caused when taking readings.